Even with the threat of climate change becoming more apparent, and an increasing focus in 12bet官方网址 investors' analyses, building a truly car-free development in booming Sun Belt cities isn't always a simple process.
在坦佩, Culdesac had to obtain a waiver on minimum parking requirements the city has for new development — commonplace in cities across the U.S. — which required a vote from city officials. The developer also had to work with the city to ensure emergency vehicles could access buildings onsite. Walking pathways through the project are wide and strong enough to carry a firetruck, Sunder said.
During Grubb's rezoning process for the site in Charlotte, it made commitments to try and offset any potential impact of not allowing resident parking in the development. Local neighbors expressed concerns that residents in the new development would own a car and park on nearby streets instead, but Grubb and others building car-free developments say they are putting provisions into leases that bar leaseholders from owning a car.
Applefield说, 在一般情况下, there are mental hurdles to overcome by eliminating parking in new residential development. Local city officials in Charlotte ultimately voted in favor of the project but it 太k months of working with residents, city staff and elected officials to get the rezoning approved.
从那时起, the developer has worked with the local biking community and an architecture firm that owns a bike shop in town to design and program the building. Each unit will have access to at least two public bicycle racks in the building and apartments will contain bike racks, 太. A ground-floor cycle and maintenance center are also being built in the project.
“在夏洛特, 900人的城市,000, would 100 people be willing to take a chance on living in this type of environment? I think the answer is yes," Applefield说.
And as more people relocate out of dense cities already used to car-free living, such as the Pacific Northwest and Northeast, 到阳光地带, projects that don't have parking — which carries extra cost to a project that ultimately gets passed to the renter — could become more popular, 他继续说.
Culdesac has also inked partnerships with groups like Lyft Inc.鸟乘公司. 山谷和地铁, the Phoenix-area transit system, to offer discounts and package deals to residents for ride-share, e-scooter and transit services.
Sunder said, at Culdesac Tempe, 60% of the founding residents are from outside of Arizona.
"They want to move here just for the development," s他继续说.
Financing is sometimes also cited as an obstacle to building car-free developments. But at Culdesac Tempe, the firm is using traditional debt and equity sources to fund the project. Grubb is leveraging its OZ fund dollars for equity at its west Charlotte car-free project and continues to work through the debt portion, Applefield说.
Reasons for developing car-free projects can range. 在死胡同坦佩, Sunder said the developer can reallocate space that's typically used for parking to adding spaces like parks, 广场, wide promenades and courtyards. More than 50% of the project is open space, she said.
Grubb Properties is committing to below-market-rate units at its project with its OZ equity funding and the elimination of parking. Half the units will lease at rates that are affordable for households earning 80% of the area median income.
Applefield说 parking in a new project in Charlotte can cost $15,000 to $40,000 per space. 假设要花20美元,000 per space to build parking at its west Charlotte project, 为104台, that's savings of more than $2 million.
Finding the right site and a government body's comfort level with no or reduced parking are key to getting car-free projects across the finish line and built, Applefield说.
"This is a really good model for creating those units with less cost," Applefield说. "We think it could be replicated in other locations where you do have that nexus with greenway, transit and close proximity to a business district."